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Full text of "History Of Ancient India"

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{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f2\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f3\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f4\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f5\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f6\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f7\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f0\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl2575\margr4380\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn2575\margrsxn4380\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li0\fi0\ri43\sb0\sa0\sl-240\slmult0 \f0\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw9\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 tation, Sita is the personification of the furrow-\expndtw4 Idess; Rama stands for India; and his conflict with \expndtw7 vana may be traced to the old Indra-Vritra myth of ; \i 'Kigveda. \i0 Without labouring the point further, it \expndtw-3 ply illustrates how the story of the \i 'Kamaydna \i0 offers \expndtw11 ruitful ground for speculation. There is no doubt \expndtw4 ,t it is thickly interwoven with mythological fiction, \i\expndtw9 ': \i0 to discredit the historicity of Rama altogether \expndtw12 >ears too wide an assumption. He is mentioned \expndtw5 the Buddhist \i Dasaratha Jdtaka, \i0 where we see him \expndtw10 his normal form divested of divine attributes. It \expndtw1 also known that Kosala was an important kingdom \i\expndtw-1 MadhyadeSa \i0 ever since Aryan expansion eastwards. \expndtw20 iat, therefore, may be taken as the nucleus of \expndtw9 t is that Rama was a real person, who belonged to \expndtw-4 5 royal Iksvaku house of Ayodhya, and whose achieve-\expndtw10 nts both in war and peace left a deep impression \expndtw3 on the popular imagination. The epoch of Rama's \expndtw-1 tieficent rule is, however, as uncertain as the contem-rary political condition of Northern or Southern India.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li10\fi0\ri0\sb235\sa0 \f0\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw4\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs22 \'95\hich\af0\dbch\af1\loch\f0\cchs0 0 \i Mahdbhdrata: Its Age}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li12\fi199\ri36\sb118\sa0\sl-240\slmult0 \f0\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw9\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 The \i Mahdbharata, \i0 which at present consists of \expndtw8 er 100,000 verses (^\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f1\cchs0 \'a5\hich\af0\dbch\af1\loch\f0\cchs0 i'^TRt%rr)^ has the rather \expndtw5 ubtful honour of being the bulkiest epic known to \expndtw1 srary history. It is divided into 18 (eighteen) books \i\expndtw-4 irvans) \i0 of unequal size with the \i tlarivamsa \i0 as a supple\-\expndtw10 st. According to orthodox tradition, Dvaipayana \super\expndtw0 r\nosupersub asa was the author of this stupendous work, but the \expndtw1 ;ential lack of uniformity in its language, style, and \expndtw4 atents clearly indicates that it is not the production \expndtw8 one brain or of one period. It is a gradual growth \expndtw10 >m an epic kernel,\super 1\nosupersub  which was in course of time}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li17\fi115\ri0\sb238\sa0\sl-202\slmult0 \f0\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 1\nosupersub  Macdonell believes that the original epic kernel of the \i Maha-\expndtw5 'rata \i0 consists of about 20,000 \i Shkas \i0 or verses \i (A. History of \expndtw4 \\skrit 'Literature, \i0 p. 283). He postulates three stages of its de-}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li77\fi0\ri0\sb67\sa0 \f0\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 5}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li4301\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0 \f0\fs20\par }